Pediatrician: A Quick Look
Median Salary $216,069 per annum
Entry-level education Medical Degree
On-the-job training Pediatric Residency
Primary employers Physician’s Offices
Number of positions (U.S.) 30,890
Job Growth (2012-2022) 18% (Faster than national average)
New positions (2012-2022) +8,550

How to Begin a Professional Career as a PediatricianWhat Is A Pediatrician?

Pediatricians are physicians who specialize in the care of infants, children, and adolescents. Read more.


Pediatricians in the United States earn a median salary of $157,610 per annum. Read more.

Becoming A Pediatrician

Pediatricians undergo extensive training in the classroom and in a clinical setting. They must earn an undergraduate degree, gain acceptance into and complete medical school, and complete a pediatric residency program at a hospital. Find out how to begin a professional career as a Pediatrician…Read more.

See Local Schools Near You

Job Outlook

The job outlook for physicians in the United States is very good, with a projected 24% job growth rate from 2010-2020. Read more.

Pediatrician Salary

The entry-level average salary for pediatricians in the United States is approximately $135,000. The median annual pediatrician salary is $157,610 according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. The top 10% of pediatricians earned $187,199 annually, while the bottom 10% of pediatricians earned $87,190 per year or less.

How To Become A Pediatrician

How Long Does It Take To become A Pediatrician

Becoming a pediatrician can be an extremely rewarding career, but it also requires a significant amount of education and training. It takes approximately 11-12 years to become a pediatrician. This includes:
  • 4 years completing an undergraduate degree
  • 4 years in medical school
  • 3-4 years internship/residency

Educational Requirements

Pediatricians undergo extensive training, both in classroom and real world settings. There are several important educational milestones that aspiring pediatricians must reach before they can practice.

Step 1: Bachelor’s Degree & MCAT

After graduating high school, aspiring Pediatricians need to complete a 4 year Bachelor’s degree. This should include completing courses required for medical school, which generally includes courses in advanced biology, math, chemistry, although the specific coursework may vary from medical school to medical school. In order to be accepted into medical school in the United States, students also need to obtain high academic standing. Most med schools require a minimum Grade Point Average (GPA) of 3.5 or above, though the requirements can often be higher. Students applying to medical school must also complete and score competitively on the MCAT exam.

Step 2: Medical School

Getting accepted into Medical School is a crucial step for becoming a pediatrician, and perhaps the most challenging. The first 2 years of med school consists primarily of basic medical overview courses. In first year, students will learn all about human anatomy and physiology, micro biology, chemistry, pharmacology, neuroanatomy, and much more. In 2nd year, students may take courses more focused on clinical sciences and start getting more hands on experience with patients. This may include introductory courses on radiology, cardiology, surgery, emergency medicine, internal medicine, and much more. In their 3rd and 4th years, students will often have chosen a specialty area, and will take coursework and participate in clinical rotations designed to strengthen their knowledge and training in their specialty of choice. Aspiring pediatricians will want to tailor their program around pediatrics, family practice, and internal medicine.

Step 3: Internship & Residency

After med school, you’ll need to be accepted into a 3 year pediatric residency program. This is where you will work as a resident in a hospital and gain real world experience working with patients under the supervision of more experienced doctors. Over the course residency, residents will gain more and more responsibility as they hone their training and skills. Pediatric residency programs must be approved by the American Board of Pediatrics (ABP). Pediatric interns also have the option of completing a fellowship at the end of their residency in order to specialize in a sub-specialty within pediatrics.

Pediatrician job description

What does a pediatrician do? Pediatricians are medical doctors who specialize in the care of infants, children, and adolescents. They assess and treat infants and children suffering from medical diseases and disorders, perform regular checkups to ensure good health, and track their growth. Most of the day to day work of a pediatrician involves treating common childhood illnesses and minor injuries. Certain pediatricians may also be specialists with regards to specific aspects of pediatric surgery.


  • Examine infant and youth patients and perform diagnostic tests to obtain a medical diagnosis
  • Track childhood development and growth
  • Assess and record patient history
  • Treat patients with minor illnesses, injuries, medical disorders, chronic health problems, and issues with growth and development.
  • Monitor a patient’s condition and re-evaluate treatments when necessary.
  • Advise parents or guardians regarding child health issues such as diet, exercise, hygiene, and disease prevention.
  • Refer patients to other specialists when necessary.
  • Co-ordinate with other staff involved with medical treatment.
  • Plan and implement health programs within businesses, schools, hospitals, and the community at large.

Job Outlook

The job outlook for physicians and surgeons is good, with the profession expected to see a projected job increase of 22% over 2010-2020. The largest employer of pediatricians are physician’s offices and hospitals, though many pediatricians are also employed in outpatient care centers and schools. The most highly paid pediatricians out of any industry segment were those employed at outpatient care centers.

Source: Youtube Sam The Mortician
Morticians: A Quick Look
Median Salary $46,840 per annum
Entry-level education Associate’s degree
On-the-job training No
Primary employers Funeral homes
Number of positions (U.S.) 23,500
Job Growth (2010-2020) 12% (On Par with Average)
New positions (2010-2020) +2,800
How to Become a Mortician

Source: Youtube Sam The Mortician

What Is A Mortician? 

Morticians, also known as funeral directors or undertakers, are responsible for the day to day management of funeral homes. They work with staff and the family of the deceased to plan and carryout the funeral service and burial. Read more.


Morticians earn a median salary of $46,840 per annum, or $22.52 per hour. Read more.

How to Become A Mortician 

Morticians must attain a minimum of a 2 year degree in mortuary science. Morticians must also be licensed by their state in order to work in the profession. Find out How to Become a Mortician… Read more.

See our listing of the top mortuary science schools & training programs

Job Outlook

The job outlook for morticians is slightly above the national average, with a projected growth rate of 12% from 2012-2022. Read more.

Mortician Salary

How much do morticians make? The median mortician salary is $26 an hour or about $46,840 annually. The top 10% of morticians earned $80,900 while the bottom 10% earned $26,580 or less. The mortician’s salary ranges from state to state and rural vs urban areas. Morticians work full time and are often required to work on weekends and evenings. They are usually on call, and long working hours are not uncommon.

How To Become A Mortician

The requirements necessary to begin a career as a mortician varies state to state. For example, in states that license embalmers, the mandatory education level is an associate’s degree (via an accredited Funeral services or Mortuary Science program); however some states only require a bachelor’s degree and mortuary training. Some embalmers opt for a business degree, followed by earning a mortuary degree, while others go for a bachelor’s degree in mortuary science. In some states embalmers need to be funeral directors, and other states let you be a funeral director without requiring that you become a licensed embalmer. You'll want to check the rules and regulations of the state you plan on beginning your career as a mortician in before planning out your courses. High school students can begin preparing for a career as a mortician by taking chemistry and biology courses, as well as taking public speaking classes. Students can also work part time in a funeral home which is a great way to get a feel for everything that goes on in a funeral home. In addition, students must complete on the job training under the tutelage of a licensed funeral director, typically lasting between 1 to 3 years. The apprenticeship can be accomplished before, during, as well as after earning a Mortuary Science Associate's degree.

Educational Requirements

Morticians must have at least an associate’s degree in Mortuary Science; however there are a growing number of employers today that favor applicants who have a bachelor’s degree. The ABFSE (American Board of Funeral Service Education) accredits a total of 57 mortuary science programs, most that are 2 year associate’s degree courses usually offered at community colleges. About nine of these programs also offer bachelor degrees. In all Mortuary Science programs, pupils take courses in funeral services, grief counseling, ethics, and business law, as well as restorative and embalming techniques courses. Online mortuary science programs are also available online through some educational facilities for the part of the program that doesn't require hands on training. All programs are typically taught by experienced funeral directors and morticians who have been working in the industry for a significant amount of time. Note: The specific educational requirements required to become a mortician may vary state-by-state. If you're considering becoming a mortician there are a few things you should keep in mind. First, only 20% of your time will more than likely be spent with the departed, with 80% being spent helping the families get through a very difficult process so it's important that you are a people person, and a good listener with a compassionate side. It's a good idea to consult with your local mortician and ask them about their job; most would be happy to answer your questions. Afterwards if you still want to pursue this time honored profession, visit the AFSBE website, browse through their many resources, and checkout schools in your area and what they have to offer; then all you need to do is choose a school and get on the road to a rewarding career as a mortician.


There are several certifications as a mortician you can attain, however most are a boost for your resume, rather than a requirement for working in the profession. The degree and experience is more important than any mortician certification however, depending on your goals and your state, pursuing certification may be worthwhile.


A license is required to practice as a mortician. In order to get a morticians license you need to pass a state, or national, exam and be 21 years of age. Typically this is only a written test but this can vary as well. Usually, the educational facility you acquired your degree and/or certificates through will prepare you for this test. Working in numerous states may lead to additional license requirements; applicants should contact their state licensing board for more information. All states require morticians to be licensed and licensing laws will vary by state. In order to be licensed most applicants need to:
  • As mentioned above applicants must be 21 years of age
  • Complete the 2 year AFSBE mortuary science program
  • Serve as an apprentice for 1 to 3 years
  • Pass the approved exams.
In addition, in order to keep their licenses, most states require morticians to complete continuing education credits annually.

Mortician job description

What does a mortician do? A career as a mortician is more than working with the deceased and the living, it calls for the individual to be part scientist and embalmer is some cases, small business owner, counselor and even groundskeeper. You need to be prepared to deal with death and the bereaved day in and day out which doesn't work for everyone. This career choice also calls for sensitivity and more importantly, great time management skills. Most morticians also organize and plan out the logistics of the funerals they handle as well as any details that need sorted out. They help the families set up the dates of the services and burials, establish locations, and help them choose whether the body should be entombed, cremated or buried, often based on religious and cultural affiliations.


Mortician duties vary depending on what the job function is as well as where they are located. If your funeral home is in a small, rural community you may end up washing the hearses, cleaning the mortuary, doing the embalming, and more general duties like meeting with families, being a shoulder to cry on, just about everything it takes to run a business like this in a small town. In metropolitan areas, especially if you own or are employed by a corporate funeral service, you're skill level and duties will be more specialized. For example there may be a number of employees, each with their own duties, one doing the embalming, another meeting with the families and helping them prepare for and plan their loved one's funeral, and going to the actual funeral as well with the family.

Alternative Job Titles

  • Funeral directors
  • Undertakers
  • Embalmers

Job Outlook

The position is also always in demand, and the number of jobs in this field are expected to rise by 12% from now until 2022. The employment growth for morticians reflects a boost in the number of expected deaths among the biggest portion of the population; the baby boomers. In addition, a rising number of older individuals are expected to prearrange their funeral services, meaning the need for more qualified funeral directors.

In order to become a petroleum engineer, candidates must possess a Bachelor of Science in Petroleum Engineering or a similar degree. Here is a listing of some of the top petroleum engineering schools in the U.S.

1. Texas A&M University

Petroleum Engineering Schools

Photo credit:

Texas A&M’s petroleum engineering program has been consistently ranked by U.S. News as one of the very top undergrad engineering programs with a PhD program.

Each year, the undergrad program produces approximately 200 graduates who enter the industry or go on to a pursue a graduate degree in petroleum engineering.

The 4 year undergrad curriculum is designed to provide students with training in the basics of engineering science. Students are also taught the fundamental engineering principles relevant to the problems and challenges faced in the petroleum industry. The program includes an internship requirement where students spend at least 6 weeks working in an oilfield operation. The completion of an approved internship is required in order to register for senior petroleum engineering courses.

2. Colorado School Of Mines

alderson hall

Alderson Hall, home to Mines’ petroleum engineering department. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Colorado school of mines is world renowned for its focus on engineering and earth sciences, and is one of the best petroleum engineering schools in the world.

The stated goal of the petroleum engineering department at Colorado School of Mines is to educate petroleum engineers at both the undergrad and graduate levels, perform cutting edge research in petroleum technology, and provide strong service to the industry as well as the public.

The program puts an emphasis on multidisciplinary teamwork between its earth science and engineering programs, in accordance with the program’s philosophy that petroleum engineering is not a narrow discipline, but a field where there is an ever increasing need for a broad understanding of world energy issues. Students are well educated on environmental issues and renewable energy technologies.

3. The University of Texas at Austin

Engineering sciences building at UT Austin

Engineering sciences building at UT Austin (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering program at University of Texas at Austin was founded in 1930, and is home to the leading petroleum engineering graduate program in the world, as well as the #2 ranked petroleum and geosystems engineering undergrad program.

The undergraduate program at UT austin admits around 90 students each year, with an average SAT of 1370, and an average high school class ranking within the top 7%. The small class size provides students with a tight-knight environment to develop the skills and knowledge needed to be leaders in the field. Students not only study the basics of math, physics, geology, and chemistry, as well as engineering analysis, management, and design, but they also take courses dedicated to the study of oil and gas extraction.

 A Listing Of The Top Petroleum Engineering Schools

School Enrollment Address Phone Number
The University of Texas at Austin 50,995 Austin, TX 78712 (512) 471-3434
Texas A & M University 48,702 College Station, TX 77843 (979) 845-3211
Pennsylvania State University 45,185 201 Old Main, University Park, PA 16802 (814) 865-4700
University of Houston 37,000 212 E. Cullen Building, Houston, TX 77204-2018 (713) 743-1000
Colorado School of Mines 5,124 1500 Illinois St., Golden, CO 80401 (303) 273-3000
Wayne State University 31,786 656 W. Kirby St., Detroit, MI 48202 (313) 577-2424
Texas Tech University 30,049 Broadway and University Ave., Lubbock, TX 79409 (806) 742-2011
University of Kansas 29,242 Lawrence, KS 66045 (785) 864-2700
West Virginia University 28,898 Stewart Hall, University Ave., Morgantown, WV 26506 (304) 293-0111
Louisiana State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College 28,643 Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (225) 578-3202
University of Oklahoma Norman Campus 25,881 660 Parrington Oval, Norman, OK 73019 (405) 325-0311
Stanford University 18,498 Stanford, CA 94305 (650) 723-2300
University of Wyoming 12,427 Corner of Ninth and Ivinson, Laramie, WY 82071 (307) 766-1121
University of Alaska Fairbanks 9,137 505 S. Chandalar Dr., Fairbanks, AK 99775 (907) 474-7211
Illinois Institute of Technology 7,707 3300 S. Federal St., Chicago, IL 60616 (312) 567-3000
Missouri University of Science and Technology 6,814 1870 Miner Cir., Rolla, MO 65409 (573) 341-4111
University of Tulsa 4,187 800 S. Tucker Dr., Tulsa, OK 74104 (918) 631-2000
New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology 1,761 801 Leroy Pl., Socorro, NM 87801 (800) 428-8324
Marietta College 1,597 Irvine Bldg., Marietta, OH 45750 (740) 376-4643
University of Southern California 34,824 University Park, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (213) 740-2311

Related Programs

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Neurosurgeons: A Quick Look
Median Salary $368,000 per annum
Entry-level education Doctoral degree
On-the-job training Internship/Residency
Primary employers Hospitals
Number of positions (U.S.) 691,400 (all surgeons)
Job Growth (2010-2020) 18% (Faster than national average)
New positions (2010-2020) 123,300 (all surgeons)

How to Begin a Professional Career as a NeurosurgeonWhat Is A Neurosurgeon?

Neurosurgeon is a doctor who specializes in treating and performing surgery on the central nervous system, which includes the brain and the spinal cord. Read more.


The median salary of a neurosurgeon in the United States is $368,000.

While pay will vary from program to program, here are the figures for some of the top neurosurgery residencies in the United States:


Here are the reported salaries for residents in the Harvard Neurology Residency Program:

Year Salary
Year 1 $54,220
Year 2 $56,462
Year 3 $57,834
Year 4 $60,563
Year 5 $62,919
Year 6 $67,677
Year 7 $70,890
Year 8 $74,460

Upstate Medical University

Here are the reported salaries for neurosurgery residents at Upstate Medical University of the State University of New York:

Year Salary
Year 1 $48,152
Year 2 $51,766
Year 3 $54,168
Year 4 $56,380
Year 5 $58,988
Year 6 $61,394
Year 7 $61,894

Mayo Clinic

Here are the reported salaries for neurosurgery residents at the Mayo Clinic:

Year Salary
Year 1 $47,259
Year 2 $49,151
Year 3 $51,186
Year 4 $53,325
Year 5 $55,626
Year 6 $57,741
Year 7 $59,662
Year 8 $61,965
Year 9 $64,200
Year 10 $66,415

Temple University School of Medicine

Here are the reported salaries for residents at Temple University School of Medicine:

Year Salary
Year 1 $49,337
Year 2 $51,064
Year 3 $52,436
Year 4 $54,288
Year 5 $55,515
Year 6 $57,740
Year 7 $60,028

University of Rochester Medical Center

Here are the reported salaries for neurosurgery residents in the University of Rochester Medical Center:

Year Salary
Year 1 $47,250
Year 2 $49,019
Year 3 $51,742
Year 4 $53,562
Year 5 $55,384
Year 6 $57,203
Year 7 $58,510

Becoming A Neurosurgeon

Becoming a neurosurgeon requires many years of study and hands-on-training, and usually takes 15-17 years. This includes obtaining a bachelor’s degree, completing medical school, completing an internship, completing residency training, and in many cases, completing a fellowship. Read on to find out How to Begin a Professional Career as a Neurosurgeon. Read more.

Job Outlook

The job outlook for physicians and surgeons is very good, with a projected job growth rate of 24%. Read more.

Neurosurgeon Salary

Neurosurgery is one of the highest paying specialties in the medical professions. The median neurosurgeon salary in the United States is $368,000. The top 10% of neurosurgeons earned $643,000 or more. All neurosurgeons in the U.S. spend at least 5 years as a neurosurgery resident. This pay significantly less than what residents will earn once they become fully qualified neurosurgeons.

How To Become A Neurosurgeon

As highly specialized physicians, all neurosurgeons must complete a 4 years undergraduate degree and 4 years of medical school in order to earn their M.D. designation.

How Long Does It Take To Become A Neurosurgeon

The path to becoming a neurosurgeon is not for the faint of heart. It’s a highly specialized field that requires an exceptional level of skill, intelligence and mental focus. In the U.S., it takes approximately 15-17 years to become a neurosurgeon. This includes:
  • 4 years completing an undergraduate degree
  • 4 years in medical school
  • 1 year hospital internship
  • 5-7 years of neurosurgery residency
  • 2-3 years of training in a fellowship either after residency or as a senior residency, in order to pursue a sub-specialty.

How Long Does It Take To Become A Neurosurgeon

Step 1: Bachelor’s Degree

While there is no specific undergraduate program for becoming a neurosurgeon, anyone interesting in becoming a neurosurgeon would start their education off by pursuing an undergraduate degree in preparation for medical school. This usually involves completing pre-med coursework focused heavily on biological sciences in order to meet admission requirements for med school. Most medical schools in the United States also require a strong Grade Point Average (GPA), usually at least 3.5 or above. Applicants will also have to complete the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) and score at a competitive level in order to be considered for medical school.

Step 2: Medical School

Anyone aspiring to become a neurosurgeon needs to earn an M.D. degree. The first 2 years of medical school is usually medical overview classes, although in the later 2 years aspiring neurosurgeons can tailor their studies to better match their career aspirations. They may want to pursue classes in surgical practice, medical diagnostics, clinical research, and disease management. Aspiring neurosurgeons will also want to pursue neurosurgery rotations at hospitals.

Step 3: Medical Licensing Exam

Once the candidate graduates from medical school, they must complete the United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE), in order to be a able to practice medicine. Many residency programs also use these scores as part of the selection process when choosing residents. The Medical Licensing Exam is administered by The National Board of Medical Examiners and the Federation of State Medical Boards. The exam can be taken after med school, or during the first year of a residency program.

Step 4: 1 Year Internship

Before their neurological residency, aspiring neurosurgeons need to complete a 1 year hospital internship. During this internship, the aspiring neurosurgeon will usually have rotations in neurology , neurosurgery, neuropathology, neuroradiology, and critical care. This internship helps new residents become familiar with day to day operations, acquire basic skills in neurological examination and diagnosis, gain experience in a surgical environment, and gain important critical care experience.

Step 5: 6-8 Year Neurosurgery Residency

During their years of residency, aspiring neurosurgeons gain the experience, skill, and training needed to become a fully qualified neurosurgeon. The residency program will gradually provide the candidate with greater levels of responsibility in terms of evaluating patients and performing surgery. There are 99 accredited neurosurgery residency programs in the United States, according to the AMA. Neurosurgery residency programs are usually 7 years in length, although some programs are 6 years, while a few require 8 years to complete. At the more junior and intermediate levels of residency, residents will work under the close supervision of senior neurosurgeons. As they gain experience, they’ll have the opportunity to assume greater responsibility and surgical opportunities. During the 5-7 years of neurosurgery residency, the residents will mature from patient care providers and surgical assistants working under close supervision, to independent, fully competent, high-level neurosurgeons. Note: Neurosurgery is one of the most competitive specialties and neurosurgery residencies generally attract the very top students from medical school.

Step 6: State Licensing and Board Certification

Neurosurgeons must be licensed through their state medical board. Applicants must complete and submit an application, pay the requisite fees, and submit their school transcripts and test scores. Neurosurgeons might also apply for Board Certification through the American Board of Neurological Surgery. Requirements for becoming board certified are available here.

Step 7: Complete A Fellowship

Most neurosurgeons continue their education and training by pursuing a fellowship in a sub-specialty. Some examples of sub-specialties include neutrotrauma/neurocritical care, functional and stereotactic surgery, pedediatric surgery, neuro-oncology, movement disorders, spine surgery and skull base surgery. Completing a fellowship entails another 1-3 years of training and education.

Neurosurgeon job description

What does a neurosurgeon do? Neurosurgeons – commonly referred to as brain surgeons – perform surgery on the brain and spinal cord. They operate on patients who may have suffered trauma to the brain or spinal cord, who have brain or nervous system diseases, or who have neurological disorders. The specific day to day duties of a neurosurgeon will depend on their sub-specialty, but here are some of the more common conditions that neurosurgeons treat:

Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

Neurosurgeons diagnose and treat patients with tumors in the central nervous system. Because of the complexity of tumors in the brain or spinal cord, neurosurgeons work with a team that usually includes a radiation oncologist, a medical oncologist, an endocrinologist, and other specialists.

Head Trauma

When patients are admitted to the hospital due to trauma to the head, neurosurgeons may be required to examine patients, and depending on the nature and severity of the injury, may need to perform emergency surgery.


Strokes are the result of blot clots in blocking blood flow to brain cells. Strokes can cause brain damage and are one of the leading causes of death. Neurosurgeons use a variety of methods to treat blood clots and also to prevent future clots from forming.

Congenital Abnormalities

Neurosurgeons treat patients who with neurological abnormalities. There is a wide spectrum of neurological abnormalities, and each condition may require a different form of treatment or surgery.

Alternate Job Titles

  • Doctor - Neurology Surgery
  • Physician - Neurology Surgery
  • Surgeon - Neurology

Job Outlook

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the job outlook for physicians and surgeons in general is very good, with a projected job growth rate of 18% from 2012-2022. This is significantly higher than the projected average job growth rate in the U.S. of 11% over that same time period. According to the National Institute of Neurologic Diseases and Stroke, neuroscience research and the advancement of neurology remains an important budgetary priority in the United States. Based on surveys and trends that point to a growing aging population and the accompanying prevalence of neurological diseases, the job outlook for neurosurgeons is looking very bright indeed.

Petroleum Engineers: A Quick Look
Median Salary $130,280 per annum
Entry-level education Bachelor’s degree
On-the-job training No
Primary employers Oil and gas extraction
Number of positions (U.S.) 38,500
Job Growth (2010-2020) 26% (Much Faster Than the Average Job)
New positions (2010-2020) +9,800

How to Begin a Professional Career as a Petroleum EngineerWhat Is A Petroleum Engineer?

A petroleum engineer devises methods and strategies for extracting oil and gas extraction and production. They may oversee and implement the creation of new drilling operations. Read more.


A median annual salary for a petroleum engineer is $130,280. Read more.

Becoming A Petroleum Engineer

Petroleum engineers must obtain a minimum of a bachelor’s degree in engineering, usually with a specialization in petroleum engineering. Find out how to begin a professional career as a Petroleum Engineer here. Read more.
Find a Local or Online Petroleum Engineer School That’s Right for You

Job Outlook

Job growth for petroleum engineers is projected at 26% from 2012-2022, which is far above the projected national job growth. Oil prices will have a significant impact on the employment opportunities available to new graduates in coming years. Read more.

Petroleum Engineer Salary

How much does a petroleum engineer make? The median petroleum engineer salary was $130,280 in 2012, according to a study by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The top 10% of petroleum engineers earned $187,200 or more, while the bottom 10% earned $75,030 or less. An average petroleum engineer’s salary of $130,280 was significantly higher than that of the average engineer, which was $86,200 in the 2012 study.

How To Become A Petroleum Engineer

A petroleum engineer must have at least a bachelor’s degree in engineering, usually with studies that focused on oil and gas drilling and production. Many petroleum engineering students also seek out co-op engineering programs in order to gain hands-on experience while still in school.

How Long Does It Take To Become Petroleum Engineer?

It usually takes around 4-5 years to become a petroleum engineer. A bachelor’s degree in Engineering typically takes 4 years, but may take 5 if the student participates in a co-operative program in order to gain work experience.

Educational Requirements

In order to become an entry-level petroleum engineer, individuals must possess a bachelor’s degree in engineering. A bachelor’s degree in engineering usually takes 4 years to complete, and the degree must be completed at an accredited university. Like in other engineering disciplines, petroleum engineering students also frequently take co-op programs, where they might work for a petroleum engineering firm during certain semesters in order to gain real world experience as well as course credit. These programs typically add another 1-2 years to a standard 4 year bachelor’s degree. Students who go through co-op programs generally have an easier time finding employment when they graduate, and it can also be an effective way to help finance their education. Some petroleum engineers also obtain a masters’ degree. A masters’ degree is not necessary to become a petroleum engineer, but it can open up employment and advancement opportunities.


Petroleum engineers can attain certification as an SPE Certified Petroleum Engineer under the Society of Petroleum Engineers. In order to become an SPE Certified Petroleum Engineer, applicants must:
  • Possess a bachelor’s degree in engineering
  • Pass an engineering fundamentals exam
  • Show a minimum of 4 years of experience and training in engineering
  • Be a member of the SPE
  • Take a minimum of 16 hours of continuing education each year
Individuals interested in applying for certification can find more information here.


Although licensing is not required in order to gain employment as an engineer, all engineers in the United States must be licensed if they’re offering their services to the public (i.e. as a consultant), or if they want to be recognized as a Professional Engineer. The licensing process includes the following requirements:
  • A bachelor’s degree from an ABET accredited engineering program
  • Passing the Fundamentals of Engineering exam
  • Passing the Professional engineering exam
  • A minimum of 4 years of relevant work experience

Additional Information

Petroleum Engineer Job Description

What does a petroleum engineer do? Petroleum engineers are responsible for developing and supervising the implementation of strategies for extracting oil and gas from wells. The majority of petroleum engineers spend time travelling to different oil and gas drilling locations. Some of these assignments may be overseas, or even aboard an off-shore oil rig.


A petroleum engineer’s duties may include:
  • Assessing the production capabilities and economic value of existing oil and gas wells
  • Work with geologists and other specialists to analyze the economic viability and production capabilities of potential drilling sites.
  • Monitoring production rates and developing strategies to improve production
  • Coordinating the installation and maintenance of equipment
  • Research and develop new methods of extracting oil and gas
  • Work with and manage other personnel to ensure the smooth operation of drilling sites

Alternative Job Titles

  • Petroleum engineer
  • Reservoir engineer
  • Drilling engineer
  • Petroleum production engineer
  • Production engineer
  • Operations engineer
  • Completions engineer
  • Drilling manager

Job Outlook

In 2010, there were 38,500 individuals employed as petroleum engineers in the United States. Job growth for petroleum engineers is projected at 26% from 2012-2022, meaning that there will be an additional 9,800 job positions created during that time period. The job growth of 26% for petroleum engineers far exceeded or surpassed the average national job growth rate of 11%. However, these projections will be affected significantly be the rise and fall of oil prices in the coming years. Higher oil prices means oil companies will expand aggressively, leading to a greater push for innovation and new extraction methods, as well as further drilling operations. This means greater demand for petroleum engineers. In addition to traditional careers in oil and gas, there is an emerging demand for petroleum engineering graduates in the fields of underground waste disposal, geothermal energy production, coal gasification, and environmental clean up.

Ultrasound Technicians: A Quick Look
Median Salary $60,350 per annum
Entry-level education Associate’s degree
On-the-job training No
Primary employers Hospitals
Number of positions (U.S.) 110,400
Job Growth (2012-2022) 39% (Very fast)
New positions (2012-2022) +42,700

How to Begin a Professional Career as an Ultrasound TechnicianWhat Does An Ultrasound Technician Do?

Ultrasound technicians – also commonly known as diagnostic medical sonographers – use ultrasonic imaging equipment to examine internal organs that physicians can use to make a medical diagnosis. Read more.


The median annual salary of an ultrasound technician is $60,350 in the United States. Read more.

Becoming An Ultrasound Technician

Ultrasound technicians must attain an associate’s or bachelor’s degree from an accredited sonography program. They may also be required to obtain personal certification and licensing. Click here to find out more about how to How to Begin a Professional Career as an Ultrasound Technician -Read more.

Job Outlook

The job outlook for ultrasound technicians is excellent, with the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics projecting a growth rate of 39% from 2010-2020. Read more.

Ultrasound Technician Salary

The median ultrasound technician salary in the U.S. is $60,350 per annum, or $29.01 per hour. The top 10% ultrasound tech salary was $91,070 or higher, while the bottom 10% earned $44,990 or less. The majority of ultrasound technicians are employed full-time. Because diagnostic imaging is sometimes required in emergencies, ultrasound technicians employed at hospitals may be required to work overnight or on weekends. The average diagnostic medical sonographer salary is expected to rise over the next 10 years as demand in the profession is fuelled by an increasingly aging demographic.

How To Become An Ultrasound Technician

How do you become a diagnostic medical sonographer? Aspiring ultrasound technicians should pursue an associate’s or bachelor’s degree in an accredited diagnostic medical sonography program.

How Long Does It Take To Become An Ultrasound Technician

It takes between 2-4 years to become an ultrasound technician. Ultrasound programs in some jurisdictions require a 2 year degree in a health-related field – along with several pre-requisite courses such as medical terminology, anatomy/physiology, and patient care – before applicants are accepted into a 2 year sonographer program. In other cases, individuals may be accepted into an associate’s degree program with just a high school diploma or equivalent.

Educational Requirements

In order to become a diagnostic medical sonographer you generally need to obtain a minimum of a 2 year associate’s degree in the field. For those already possess a health-related degree and are working in healthcare jobs , 1 year certificate programs are available for those looking to transition into a career as an ultrasound tech. Some individuals also pursue a bachelor’s degree in the field. A certificate program, associate’s degree, or bachelor’s degree will provide students with the opportunity to practice the skills and gain the knowledge needed in order to apply diagnostic medical sonography techniques in real-world scenarios. For individuals who want to eventually move into management positions supervising other sonographers, a 4 years bachelor’s degree would be beneficial. The specific educational requirements required to become a diagnostic medical sonographer may vary state-by-state.


Requirements for ultrasound technician certification varies from state-to-state. Some states require ultrasound technicians be licensed, which usually involves graduating from an accredited sonographer program, and obtaining certification by passing an exam. Certification for ultrasound technicians is obtained through ARDMS. The base ARDM certification exam contains 110 multiple choice questions, as well as additional situational based questions that test the examinee’s ability to approach real world patient interactions. The exam is 2 hours in duration. In addition to the base ARDM exam, individuals pursuing certification must complete an exam in their chosen sub-specialty (e.g. abdomen, breast, fetal echocardiography). Specialty exams are 3 hours in duration and consist of 170 multiple choice questions.


Not all states require licensing. Check with your local state board to determine if you need to be licensed in order to work as an ultrasound technician. When it licensing is required, licensees must generally have graduated from an accredited institution and passed the certification exam offered through ARDMS, though individual states may have additional requirements for licensure.

Ultrasound Technician Job Description

What does an ultrasound technician do? Ultrasound technicians use ultrasound equipment to assess patients and assist with medical diagnosis. The ultrasound equipment sends high-frequency waves into the body, which bounces back to create an image of the patient’s body, which can be shown on a screen. Physicians utilize these recorded images in order to assist with their medical diagnosis. Ultrasound technicians may specialize in specific parts of the body. Here are some examples of specialized ultrasound technicians/sonographers.
  • Abdominal Sonographers
  • Breast Sonographers
  • Musculoskeletal Sonographers
  • Neurosonographers
  • Obstetric and gynecologic sonographers
  • Job Outlook

    The job outlook for ultrasound technicians is excellent, with a projected national job growth of 39%, which is significantly faster than the national projected job growth rate of 11%. There were 110,400 diagnostic medical sonographers employed in the United States in 2012. This number is expected to rise by 42,700 by 2022. This growth is expected to be driven by an aging population which will require ultrasound technology in diagnosing medical conditions. The growth will also be driven by the increased use of ultrasound technology for diagnostic purposes, as it continues to replace more invasive techniques.

    Respiratory Therapists: A Quick Look
    Median Salary $55,870 per annum
    Entry-level education Associate’s degree
    On-the-job training No
    Primary employers Hospitals
    Number of positions (U.S.) 119,300
    Job Growth (2010-2020) 19% (Faster than average)
    New positions (2010-2020) +22,700

    How to Begin a Professional Career as a Respiratory TherapistWhat Does A Respiratory Therapist Do?

    Respiratory therapists assist and care for patients suffering from respiratory disorders as well as cardiopulmonary difficulties. Their patients can range from young or middle aged individuals with chronic breathing diseases like emphysema or asthma, to premature infants who have underdeveloped lungs, to elderly patients with lung disease. In addition to their regular duties, respiratory therapists may also be required to offer emergency medical care. Read more.


    Respiratory therapists earn a median salary of $55,870 per annum, or $26.86 per hour. Read more.

    Becoming A Respiratory Therapist

    Most respiratory therapists are required to have least an associate’s degree from an accredited respiratory therapist program. Many respiratory therapists also have bachelor’s degrees. Click here to find out more about How to Begin a Professional Career as a Respiratory Therapist -Read more.

    See our list of the top respiratory therapist school & training programs

    Job Outlook

    The job outlook for respiratory therapists is very good, with a projected 19% job growth rate from 2012-2022. Read more.

    Respiratory Therapist Salary

    How much do respiratory therapists make? The annual median salary for respiratory therapists was $55,870 based on data gathered in 2012 by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). Workers in the top 10% earned $75,430 or more, while those in the bottom 10% earned $40,980 or less. Respiratory therapists are generally employed full-time. Those working in hospitals may be required to work evening, graveyard, or weekend hours, while those employed in nursing care facilities, in home health care, and physician's offices generally work standard 9-5 hours.

    How To Become A Respiratory Therapist

    The majority of respiratory therapists obtain a 2 year associate's degree in respiratory therapy. This is the minimum level of formal education required in most jurisdictions. In all states except Alaska, respiratory therapists must also apply for licensing from a state board. Respiratory therapists can also obtain 2 different levels of certification - CRT and RRT - which may be required by employers or the state board, though it varies state-by-state.

    Educational Requirements

    Respiratory therapist education can be obtained in a number of ways. While the majority of respiratory therapist positions require at least a 2 year associate's degree that includes classroom as well as clinical training, bachelor's degrees are also common. Note: The specific educational requirements required to become a respiratory therapist may vary state-by-state.


    Certification is not always required to become a respiratory therapist. However, many employers only hire respiratory therapists with certification. Certification for respiratory therapists is governed nationally by the National Board for Respiratory Care (NBRC). The NBRC offers 2 different levels of certification: the first level is that of Certified Respiratory Therapist (CRT), and the second level is that of Registered Respiratory Therapist (RRT). In order to be certified as a Certified Respiratory Therapist (CRT), candidates must:
    • Possess an associate's degree from an accredited respiratory therapist program, OR
    • Have completed the equivalent credits in a bachelor's program, and passed an exam.
    In addition, all CRTs must pass the Certified Respiratory Therapist exam. The CRT exam costs $190 to write and candidates are permitted 3 hours to complete the exam. The exam itself consists of 160 multiple choice questions. To apply to be a Registered Respiratory Therapist, the candidate must:
    • Have been certified as a CRT, AND
    • Have an associate's degree in an accredited respiratory therapist program, OR
    • Have a 1 year entry-level associate's degree in an accredited respiratory therapist program, as well as 2 years of full-time supervised clinical experience, OR
    • Have completed a special certificate of completion in an accredited respiratory therapy program, OR
    • Have 4 years of supervised full-time respiratory therapy clinical experience, and at least 62 college credit hours including courses in: anatomy, chemistry, microbiology, math, and physics, OR
    • Have a bachelor's degree in a non-respiratory therapy related program, but with credits in anatomy, chemistry, microbiology, math, and physics, as well as 2 years full-time supervised clinical experience as a respiratory therapist.
    Upon meeting the above qualifications, the applicant must write and pass the Registered Respiratory Therapist examination. The RRT exam consists of 160 questions, as well as a 10 question simulation section, where the exam taker will have to describe their treatment approach to various treatment scenarios. A $250 fee is required to write the exam.


    Respiratory therapists are licensed by a state board in every state except Alaska. Specific licensing requirements vary on a state-by-state basis, though the majority of states do require completing a licensing exam either on the state or national level.

    Respiratory therapist job description

    What is a respiratory therapist? Respiratory therapists attend to patients with breathing difficulties or cardiopulmonary disease. They work one on one with patients who have difficulty breathing, ranging from premature babies to the elderly. They interview, perform tests and work with a physician in order to develop a treatment plan for the patient. The respiratory therapist will implement the treatment plan and monitor the patient's progress. Respiratory therapists are also expected to provide emergency medical care in cases of heart attack, asphyxiation, or shock. Respiratory therapists must be patient, compassionate and possess strong communication and people skills. They must also be able to think and react quickly and be detail oriented.


    • Perform interviews, diagnostic tests, and examinations to help diagnose breathing and/or cardiopulmonary issues
    • Consult with physicians in order to develop a treatment program
    • Implement treatment programs, with the help of nurses and respiratory technicians
    • Supervise respiratory technicians
    • Keep records of the treatment progress
    • May be called upon to provide emergency care if patients are experiencing asphxiation.
    Many respiratory therapists work for hospitals, but respiratory therapists also often work in nursing homes, doctors' offices, and even provide home health services where they care for and treat patients in their own home.

    Alternative Job Titles

    • Certified Respiratory Therapist (CRT)
    • Registered Respiratory Therapist (RRT)

    Job Outlook

    Respiratory therapists have a very good chance of finding employment. Job growth is projected at 28% for the period from 2010-2010, which is significantly higher than the national average job growth across all jobs, which is projected at 10-19% during the same time period. At the moment, there are approximately 112,000 individuals employed as respiratory therapists in the U.S, although that number is projected to grow to 143,900 by 2020. The faster than average job growth is expected to be fueled largely by the growing elderly population, which will increase demand for respiratory therapists in hospitals, nursing homes, and home health services.

    NEPCIn a recently published report stated that the # of employees employed full-time by the American school system had grown 2.6 times as fast as student growth during the period of 1992-2009.

    However, the report by the Friedman Foundation for Education choice also showed that the extra staff didn’t actually improve academic outcomes. The report, entitled “The School Staffing Surge”, argued that the government could have saved a significant amount of money with virtually no effect on education, had staff growth rates remained constant with student growth rates. (more…)